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No. 41: Sep-Oct 1985

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Evolution's motor runs fast and quietly

M. Kimura has been promulgating what he terms The Neutral Theory of Evolution. He concludes that "the most prev-alent evolutionary changes that have occurred at the molecular level, that is in the genetic material itself, since the origin of life on Earth are those that have been caused by random genetic drift rather than by positive Darwinian selection." Kimua maintains and can experimentally prove to some extent that the genetic material of all organisms changes rapidly and constantly. The genes change much more rapidly than scientists believed just a few years ago. We observe few if any changes at the phenotype level (organism morphology) because the overwhelming majority of these changes are neutral. They confer no significant advantage or disadvantage on the organism. In fact, Kimura and others have demonstrated that the fastest molecular evolution occurs in the least important genes. It is fastest of all in the pseudogenes or dead genes, which seem to have no discernable functions. In other words, the genetic engine is running, but the gears are in neutral!

In Kimura's thinking, these molecular changes may eventually become important at the phenotype level if the environment changes or there is some other destabilizing influence. Kimura is the author of the 1983 book The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. Although Kimura has some experimental support, his theory is not widely accepted.

(Motoo Kimura; "The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution," New Scientist, p. 41, July 11, 1985.)

Comment. The intriguing part of Kimura's article concerns that steady hum of gene changes -- all to little or no avail when times are stable--but seemingly ready to provide the genetic pressure required to fill new niches. Why do these nonliving molecules have just those properties vital to life? It hardly seems sufficient to say that if nonlife did not have the properties it has we wouldn't be here. It raises again the question of whether the human blueprint is implicit in the electron and other simple particles. If so, what blueprints reside there still unrealized?

From Science Frontiers #41, SEP-OCT 1985. 1985-2000 William R. Corliss

Science Frontiers Sourcebook Project Reviewed in:

Quotes

  • "A sourcebook of unexplained phenomena is therefore a valuable addition to a collection of scientific literature. William R. Corliss has provided this in the past with his source books of scientific anomalies in several subjects, and now he has provided it for astronomy. He has done an excellent job of collecting and editing a large amount of material, taken in part from scientific journals and in part from scientific reporting in the popular or semi-scientific press." -- "The Mysterious Universe: A Handbook of Astronomical Anomalies", reviwed by Thomas Gold, Cornell University, in Icarus, vol.41, 1980

  • "An interesting, systematic presentation of unusual weather [..] This book is recommended for a general audience" --"Corliss, William R., Tornados, Dark Days, Anomalous Precipitation, and Related Weather Phenomena, Sourcebook Project, 1983.", revieweed in Choice, September 1983
  • "..the science is necessarily somewhat speculative, but Corliss's symthesis is based on reputable sources." -- "Corliss, William R. (Compiler). Lightning, Auroras, Nocturnal Lights, and Related Luminous Phenomena" reviwed by Joseph M. Moran, Univ. of Wisconsin in Science Books and Films, Sep/Oct 1983

  • "Before opening the book, I set certain standards that a volume which treads into dangerous grounds grounds like this must meet. The author scrupulously met, or even exceeded those standards. Each phenomenon is exhaustively documented, with references to scientific journals [..] and extensive quotations" -- "Book Review: The moon and planets: a catalog of astronomical anomalies", The Sourcebook Project, 1985., Corliss, W. R., Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 81, no. 1 (1987), p. 24., 02/1987